Objective: In this study, the possible participation of glycan from wheat gliadin, with respect to its IgE-binding capacity, was investigated in children with food allergies to wheat.
Methods: Total IgE and wheat-specific IgE quantification, documentation of history, and/or oral food challenge were performed for 52 children. Subjects with positive wheat-specific IgE were characterized as the symptomatic group, never-exposed group, or asymptomatic group. SDS-PAGE and glycan detection in gliadin were performed. IgE binding to gliadin and deglycosylated gliadin was measured by immunoblotting and ELISA.
Results: Gliadin-specific IgE was detected and correlated with wheat-specific IgE in the symptomatic, never-exposed and asymptomatic groups. The glycan range overlapped significantly with the gliadin range. Deglycosylation of gliadin reduced the allergenicity of gliadin. In gliadin, the allergenicity of the glycan portion was greater in the symptomatic group than in the never-exposed and asymptomatic groups.
Conclusions: We conclude that N-glycan in gliadin might exhibit allergenicity as a possible carbohydrate epitope in wheat allergy in children.