Contact eczema is a complex polymorphic skin eruptions disease formed on inflammatory, which arises from skin contact with irritants or allergens. In a substantial proportion of patients exist also a contact allergy, however no less is sensitization to inhalant and food allergens. The aim of this study was epidemiological analysis to determine the frequency of contact, inhaled and food allergy in patients with contact eczema.
The main research method in the study was a retrospective analysis of medical records of patients who from January 2012 to December 2013 were registered to allergy clinic to diagnosed skin changes characterized of contact eczema. The analysis included only patients who underwent patch testing.
The study analyzed the histories of 79 patients with contact eczema: 61 women in age 18-83 years (mean age 46.5 years) and 18 men in age 22-80 years (mean age 54.3 years). The most common locations of contact eczema were hands (n = 28; 35.4%) and faces (n = 22; 27.8%). Positive patch tests results were obtained in 29 (36.7%) patients, the majority in patients with hands (n = 12; 42.8%) and faces (n = 6; 27.2%) contact eczema. The most common sensitizing haptens were nickel sulfate (n = 16, 55.1%), para-phenylenediamine (n = 13; 44.8%) and potassium dichromate (n = 12; 41.3%). Prick tests with inhalant allergens were performed in 65 patients and with food allergens were performed in 29 patients. In 27 (41.5%) patients were registered positive skin prick tests results to inhaled allergens, in the majority of patients with hands (n = 13; 20%), faces (n = 7; 10.7%) and the upper limb (n = 4; 6.1%) contact eczema. Food allergy was diagnosed in 6 (20.6%) patients, 2 (33%) of patients were with hands, faces and feet contact eczema. Among the inhaled allergens, the most sensitizing were D. Farinae, D. Pteronyssimus and grass, while the most sensitizing food allergens were celery, pepper and flour.
The hands and faces are the most common location of contact eczema. In a large proportion of patients with contact eczema occurs contact allergy, especially to metals and para-phenylenediamine. A significant problem for patients with contact eczema are coexist inhalable and food allergies. Because of a high incidence allergies in patients with contact eczema, diagnosis of disease is complicated. Fact of that and various clinical and chronic profiles of disease may decreased quality of life of patients.