B) Methods: 405 pregnant women were recruited between April 2010 and November 2010. 111 women completed the study. The pregnant women with the genetic diseases, autoimmune diseases, and endocrinologic diseases were excluded. Parental allergic diseases, allergen sensitization, exposure to HDM, maternal diet during pregnancy, and cytokine expression in neonatal cord blood of all subjects were investigated. Information on physician–diagnosed allergic diseases of the subjects and/or their spouses had been gathered from the questionnaires and allergy specialist confirmed diagnosis after examining the subjects who declared to have allergic diseases on the questionnaires. Allergen sensitization was performed by using the skin prick test including Der p 1, Der p 2, tree mixture, grass mixture, weed, dog and cat. Dietary intakes and nutrition during the last 3 months of pregnancy period were assessed using the semi-quantitative food questionnaire and indoor environments of each household including exposure to dust mites were investigated by semi-quantitative rapid test. Expressions of IL-4, IL-13, and INF-γ of neonatal cord blood were examined by using quantitative real-time PCR.
C) Results: Among subjects, the pregnant women with diagnosed allergic diseases were 54 and most common allergic disease was allergic rhinitis. (61.1%) 54 women were exposed to tobacco smoking and 5 women were living with pets.
All subjects showed significant differences in expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ. (n=111, p<0.05) IL-4 /IFN- γ ratio was 4.63±8.72. (mean±SD) No significant relationship is observed between IL-4 and IFN-γ of neonatal cord blood and subject’s environments including exposures to tobacco smoking, pet ownership, carpet use, detectable HDM and bedding for protecting HDM use.
HDM was detected in 29 pregnant women’s household, but significant difference between HDM detected and HDM non-detected was not showed. IL-4 and IFN-γ in cord blood of neonate with allergic mother had higher expression than those of non-allergic mother. (p<0.05) The amounts of nutrition weren’t related to neonatal cord blood IL-4 and IFN- γ.
D) Conclusions: This is the study about the relationship between maternal food intakes and exposure to HDM during pregnancy and fetal immunity. The study found that 1) infants had Th1/Th2 polarization at birth and that 2) Expression of IL-4 and INF-γ was related to maternal allergic disease.