Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive multifactorial disease with limited treatment options.
Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of glycosides based standardized fenugreek seed extract (SFSE-G) on behavioral, biochemical, molecular and ultrastructural changes in bleomycin (BLM) induced pulmonary fibrosis in the laboratory rats.
Materials and Method: IPF was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by single intratracheal BLM (6 IU/kg) injection followed by SFSE-G (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) or Methylprednisolone (10 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment for 28 day. Sham control rats received saline instead of BLM. The lung function test, biochemical, molecular, histopathological and ultrastructural changes were analyzed in lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after 14 and 28 days after the drug treatment.
Results: Treatment with SFSE-G significantly restored the BLM induced alteration in body weight, lung index, lung function test and hematology. SFSE-G treatment significantly restored the altered total and differential cell count in BALF and blood. The BLM induced peripheral blood oxygen content reduction was significantly reversed by SFSE-G treatment. SFSE-G significantly enhanced the BALF and lung antioxidant status, through modulating the SOD, GSH, T-AOC, MDA, NO level and Nrf2, HO-1 mRNA expression. There was a significant reduction in lung 5-HT level by SFSE-G treatment. The altered mRNA expression of lung inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8), fibrotic markers (TGF-β, collagen-1, ET-1, Muc5ac, NF-kB, VEGF, Smad-3) and apoptotic markers (Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3) were significantly restored by SFSE-G treatment. BLM induced histological inflammatory, and fibrotic and ultrastructural changes of lungs were reversed by SFSE-G treatment.
Conclusion: SFSE-G has potential efficacy against the fibrotic pathogenesis of BLM induced pulmonary fibrosis probably through anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic pathways.
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