Monday, 6 December 2010
Objective: To summarize the results of the CIS countries (CIS-C) research on the prevalence, structure and peculiarities of the course of allergic diseases (AD) for the last 5–10 years. Materials: Literature data, the results of the research on the program ISAAC and ARIA, obtained from the National Societies of Allergology and Immunology, statistic reports of the Republic Ministries of Health and medical institutions on the dissemination of AD in children (Ch), teenagers (Tg) and adults (Ad) living in industrial cities and rural areas. Results: It was found out that the structure of AD of CIS-C is dominated by: bronchial asthma (BA), allergic rhinitis (AR), atopic dermatitis (AD), pollinosis (P). The average incidence of AD ranges from 15% to 40%. It was stated that 7% of 48.3% of the Ad and from 4% to 21% of Ch+Tg suffer from BA. The highest incidence of BA is reported in Tajikistan and Armenia. AR is diagnosed in 8%–34% of Ad and 4%–9% of Ch+Tg. Prevalence of symptoms of AR is particularly high in Armenia and Azerbaijan. The average incidence of AD in Ad is 5%–19%, in Ch+Tg– 5.3%. The high prevalence of AD is characteristic of Ukraine, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. In Armenia and Tajikistan the level of AD diseases among Ch+Tg noted within 2.7%–4.7%. In Tajikistan and Armenia a significant number of patients is revealed with P, more often Ad are ill (15.7%–29.3%), Ch–4.3%–5.2%. In Armenia a significant incidence of allergic conjunctivitis is established among Ch+Tg (39.1%–62.2%), Ad–13.6%–32.9%. It was revealed that the true prevalence of AD is significantly different from the results of official statistics. The prevalence of AD depended on urbanization in the region and the climate and geographic conditions. In the highlands AD are extremely rare. The prevalence of AD was 2-3 times higher in industrial areas. In epidemiological study dominated patients with mild AD. The structure of AD recorded by uptake, dominated the disease with medium-severe course. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies can provide reliable information on the prevalence, structure and severity of AD. Monitoring of the true prevalence of AD shows hypodiagnostics of all forms of AD in the CIS-C, related to the underestimation of mild forms of the disease. Accounting for the structure and expression of sensitization to allergens, taking into account climate and geographic features, allows to plan the work of allergic services and to organize preventive and curative interventions.